عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the issues in the Meteorological Organization is the lack of documentation of errors in the process of producing, measuring, recording and preparing data in the atmospheric observation system. Also, the poor data quality, missing data, inappropriate spatial density of meteorological stations are the major problems faced by climatology researchers in Iran. Nonstandard distance of stations, inappropriate co-locating of stations, human errors in reading and recording data, errors in measuring equipment, different methods of measurment, Non maintenance and calibration of station, constructions around the stations, changes in the type of instruments and sensors for atmospheric parameters measurement and station relocation during the statistical period are other problems that affect the accuracy of the meteorological data.
Materials and Methods:
The aim of this study is to investigate and document the problems in the system of monitoring and interpretation of atmospheric data in Iran with a pathological approach. To that end, articles, specialized books, high-end documents such as World Meteorological Organization documents, programs, plans and documents of the Meteorological Organization, guidelines and directives, were reviewed. In addition, field assessments and case studies were conducted using methods such as preparing a questionnaire and interviewing experts.
Results and discussion:
The results of the questionnaire and interviews with experts showed:
1- Synoptic experts have between 70% to 90 % of the required skills.
2- Respondents knew between 70% to 90 % of the standards and guidelines.
3- Between 50% to 70% of the standards are adhered in the network of meteorological stations.
4- Between 50% to 70 % of the required periodic calibrations on equipment are performed at standard intervals.
5- Between 50% to 70 % of the equipment used at the stations are accurate and standard.
6- Not calibrating and maintaining stations reduce accuracy of data between 10% to 30%.
7- Only 10% to 30% of the stations have complete metadata.
8- Upper air facilities supply between 50% to 70% of the meteorological requirements.
9- Sanctions have reduced our access to upper air, radar and satellite data between 50% to 70%.
10- Station automation policy, due to reduced human interference in the data process, if implemented correctly, can increase data accuracy between 30% to 50% on average.
11- If the station automation policy, is implemented regardless of regular training of experts, periodic calibration on equipment and continious quality control of data, it can reduce data quality and accuracy between 30% to 50%.
12- The mental condition of the synoptic experts, the working and management issues can affect between 70% to 90% of the observer's performance and data accuracy.
13- Between 30% to 50% of meteorological station data need to be homogenized.
14- For estimating temperature and precipitation parameters in non-station locations, using interpolation methods were found appropriate between 50% to 70%.
15- Remote sensing methods were found appropriate for estimating temperature and precipitation parameters in non-station location between 70% to 90%.
16- Between 30% to 50% of meteorological satellite data are available online to our researchers.
17- Available meteorological radar facilities only provide 30% to 50% of the radar data required.
18- Due to restrictions, only about 50% to 70% of radar’s locating were appropriate.
19- For about 30% to 50% of radars, studies on evaluating and improving the uncertainty in radar data based on the calibration and correction coefficients were taken .
20- Allocate appropriate government funding to the Meteorological Organization can reduce over 90% of the problems caused by inadequate access to remote sensing data (such as satellites and radars).
The following are some of the major probems at the station during field observation.
1- Nonstandard conditions of station and natural climate of the area.
2. Nonstandard methods for observing and adjusting the equipment.
3. Differences in observing methods.
4- Inaccuracy of the observer.
5. Lack of adequate supervision.
6. Imprecision and inconsistency of data.
7. Lack of support and supply of new meteorological components and equipment.
Based on the results of the questionnaire and field observation, the most problems that affect on the accuracy of data are as follows.
1- Insufficient knowledge and skills of synoptic experts in the data process, lack of complete knowledge the relevant standards and rules, lack of compliance with the standards and established rules, lack of precision in the work process and insufficient supervision of the correct process of work by the authorities.
2. Construction of stations in non-standard conditions, Non maintaining and non calibrating of station over time and finally station relocation during the statistical period.
3. Not performing periodic and regular calibrations of equipment at standard time intervals, using of different types of equipment with different brands in the meteorological stations and imprecision and inconsistent data of these brands with each other at standard level, insufficient infrastructure for automatic calibration. Lack of spare parts and support and software problems with these systems
4. Organizational and managerial issues that can directly affect the motivation, mental condition and performance of the observer and therefore the accuracy of the data.
5. Sanctions have a significant impact on the provision and support of new meteorological equipment and radars. As well as, a lack of sufficient financial resources has contributed to the organization's inadequate access to new meteorological instruments and so to this type of data.