ارزیابی روش های برآورد نیاز آبی گیاهان فضای سبز شهری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی آبیاری و آبادانی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

2 کارشناس مطالعات، شرکت مهندسین مشاور آب و انرژی اروند. اهواز. ایران.

3 گروه علوم و مهندسی آبخیز، دانشکده منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران. کرج. ایران.

چکیده

با رشد جمعیت شهری، به علت افزایش آلودگی هوا و همچنین رسیدن به سرانه مطلوب فضای سبز، لزوم توسعه فضای سبز شهری بیش از گذشته روشن می‌گردد. با این حال کمبود منابع آبی قابل استحصال نگرانی‌ها را در این بخش افزایش می‌دهد. مدیریت مصرف منابع آبی، تنها راه‌کار مناسب و اصولی جهت جبران بخش زیادی از کمبود آب مورد نیاز فضای سبز می‌باشد. محاسبه و برآورد نیاز آبی فضای سبز شهری می‌تواند کمک شایانی به برنامه‌ریزی در جهت مصرف بهینه منابع آبی کند. در این تحقیق تبخیر و تعرق گیاهان فضای سبز شهری محدوده منطقه یک شهرداری تهران به مساحت خالص 4/1535 هکتار با استفاده از سه روش WUCOLS، IPOS و PF برآورد گردید. محدوده مطالعاتی شامل 52 گونه مختلف گیاهی می‌باشد. جهت محاسبه تبخیر و تعرق مرجع و مقدار بارندگی مؤثر، از داده‌های اقلیمی ایستگاه هواشناسی شمال تهران در بازه 30 ساله (1395-1365) استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین مقدار نیاز آبی محاسبه شده مربوط به روش PF به میزان 72/786 میلیمتر در سال و کمترین آن مربوط یه روش IPOS به میزان 08/378 میلیمتر در سال می‌باشد. همچنین نتایج این پژوهش حاکی از آن است که روش WUCOLS با مجموع مقدار نیاز آبی محاسبه شده 33/771 میلیمتر در سال، به علت داشتن پارامترهای بیشتر و کامل‌تر و ارتباط مناسب‌تر با تمامی اهداف مد نظر در فضای سبز شهری، روشی مناسب‌تر برای برآورد نیاز آبی فضای سبز شهری می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of methods for estimating water needs of urban green space plants

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ansari Ghojghar 1
  • Ehsan Parsi 2
  • Abdolmajid Liaghat 1
  • Ali Salajeghe 3
1 Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.
2 Study Expert, Arvand Water and Energy Consulting Engineers Company, Ahvaz, Iran.
3 Department of Watershed Engineering Faculty of Natural Resources University of Tehran. Karaj. Iran.
چکیده [English]

With the growth of urban population, due to the increase in air pollution and also reaching the desired per capita green space, the need for urban green space development becomes clearer than before. However, the scarcity of extractable water resources raises concerns in this area. Water resources management is the only appropriate and principled solution to compensate for a large part of the water shortage required by green space. Calculating and estimating the water demand of urban green space can be a great help in planning for the optimal use of water resources. In this study, the evapotranspiration of urban green space plants in area one of Tehran Municipality with a net area of ​​1535.4 hectares was estimated using three methods: WUCOLS, IPOS and PF. The study area includes 52 different plant species. To calculate the reference evapotranspiration and the amount of effective rainfall, climatic data of the North Tehran Meteorological Station for a period of 30 years (1365-1396) were used. The results showed that the highest amount of calculated water requirement is related to the PF method at the rate of 786.72 mm per year and the lowest is related to the IPOS method at the rate of 378.08 mm per year. Also, the results of this study indicate that the WUCOLS method with a total amount of calculated water requirement of 771.33 mm per year, due to having more and more complete parameters and more appropriate relationship with all objectives in urban green space, a method It is more suitable for estimating the water demand of urban green space.With the growth of urban population, due to the increase in air pollution and also reaching the desired per capita green space, the need for urban green space development becomes clearer than before. However, the scarcity of extractable water resources raises concerns in this area. Water resources management is the only appropriate and principled solution to compensate for a large part of the water shortage required by green space. Calculating and estimating the water demand of urban green space can be a great help in planning for the optimal use of water resources. In this study, the evapotranspiration of urban green space plants in area one of Tehran Municipality with a net area of ​​1535.4 hectares was estimated using three methods: WUCOLS, IPOS and PF. The study area includes 52 different plant species. To calculate the reference evapotranspiration and the amount of effective rainfall, climatic data of the North Tehran Meteorological Station for a period of 30 years (1365-1396) were used. The results showed that the highest amount of calculated water requirement is related to the PF method at the rate of 786.72 mm per year and the lowest is related to the IPOS method at the rate of 378.08 mm per year. Also, the results of this study indicate that the WUCOLS method with a total amount of calculated water requirement of 771.33 mm per year, due to having more and more complete parameters and more appropriate relationship with all objectives in urban green space, a method It is more suitable for estimating the water demand of urban green space.With the growth of urban population, due to the increase in air pollution and also reaching the desired per capita green space, the need for urban green space development becomes clearer than before. However, the scarcity of extractable water resources raises concerns in this area. Water resources management is the only appropriate and principled solution to compensate for a large part of the water shortage required by green space. Calculating and estimating the water demand of urban green space can be a great help in planning for the optimal use of water resources. In this study, the evapotranspiration of urban green space plants in area one of Tehran Municipality with a net area of ​​1535.4 hectares was estimated using three methods: WUCOLS, IPOS and PF. The study area includes 52 different plant species. To calculate the reference evapotranspiration and the amount of effective rainfall, climatic data of the North Tehran Meteorological Station for a period of 30 years (1365-1396) were used. The results showed that the highest amount of calculated water requirement is related to the PF method at the rate of 786.72 mm per year and the lowest is related to the IPOS method at the rate of 378.08 mm per year. Also, the results of this study indicate that the WUCOLS method with a total amount of calculated water requirement of 771.33 mm per year, due to having more and more complete parameters and more appropriate relationship with all objectives in urban green space, a method It is more suitable for estimating the water demand of urban green space.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Wucols
  • IPOS
  • PF
  • evapotranspiration
  • green space