باز‌سازی دیرینه اقلیمی و پوشش گیاهی در حوضه دشت ارژن فارس در پلیستوسن پایانی و هولوسن بر اساس مطالعه‌ی گرده‌های گیاهی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه جغرافیای طبیعی - دانشکده علوم زمین -دانشگاه شهید بهشتی- تهران -ایران

2 استاد دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

3 استادیار پژوهشکده اقیانوس‌شناسی و علوم جوی

چکیده

به منظور مطالعه پوشش گیاهی گذشته در تالاب دشت اژن مغزه­ای به طول 960 سانتیمتر از این تالاب برداشته شد. در ابتدا،  مغزه تحت اندازه­گیری پذیرفتاری مغناطیسی قرار گرفت. سپس نمونه­ها باز شده و با توجه به پذیرفتاری مغناطیسی از آنها زیر­نمونه تهیه شده، برای مطالعات گرده­های گیاهی آماده­سازی شد. چهار نمونه تکه گیاهی هم در طول مغزه برداشته شده و برای سن­سنجی به آزمایشگاه رادیوکربن پزنان لهستان ارسال گردید. نتایج مطالعات سن­سنجی بازه زمانی 15000 ساله را نشان داد. از 15000 سال تا11000 سال قبل، پلیستوسن پسین پوشش گیاهی استپی با آب و هوای سرد و نسبی خشک غالب بوده است. گونه کوزینیا و خانواده اسفناجیان و درمنه که در اوایل این دوران به وفور مشاهده شده است حکایت از شرایط سرد پایان دوره یخبندان در این دوران دارد. گونه­های درختی از جمله جنگل­های بلوط و پسته-بادام تقریبا 10000 سال قبل ظهور کرده و در هولوسن میانی گسترش پیدا کرده­اند. احتمالا در این دوران بارش فصل گرم با افزایش نسبی بارش و دما شرایط مناسب برای رشد بلوط را فراهم آورده است. از 10000 سال قبل بیشتر گونه­های گندمیان در منطقه غلبه داشته­اند. حدود 5700 سال قبل هولوسن میانی پوشش درختی غلبه پیدا کرده و الگوی تقریبا منظمی را تا عهد حاضر طی می­کند. این مشاهدات تایید کردند که اگر چه نوسانات در اقلیم درطول هولوسن میانی و پسین رخ داده است، اما الگوهای بارشی در این منطقه از 6000 سال قبل به بعد به الگوی تقریبا ثابت امروزی رسیده است و در این دوره گونه­های درختی بلوط و جنگل­های پسته- بادام دراین محیط گسترده شده­اند. جنگل­های بلوط از حدود 5700 سال قبل شروع به رشد کرده اند. فاز دوم گستردگی در گونه­های بلوط حدود 3000 سال قبل  اتفاق افتاده، ظهور درخت گردو در این دوره نیز قابل توجه است و نشان دهنده فعالیت انسانی در این دوره می­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Paleoclimate reconstruction and vegetation dynamic during Pleistocene and Holocene based on palynology at Dasht E Arzhan wetland ars Southwest Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • zahra sadat hoseini 1
  • Shahriar Khaledi 2
  • Abdolmajid Naderi Bani 3
1 physical geography- faculty of earth science- shahid beheshti university- Tehran- Iran
2 Professor of Shahid Behshti university
3 Associated Professor I National Institute of Oceanography and Atmospheric Science
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Complex of climate related to topography and general circulation atmospheric interaction in Iran have been unintelligence. Modern climate in southwest Iran is governed by Red sea Trough and westerly depression and Siberian high pressure and in order to understanding of this complex we need to obtain the climate conditions of past.  One of the best method for reconstruction of paleoclimate change based on reconstructs of vegetation dynamics by pollen count. This method the first time  have applicateed by Van Zist and Bottema in northwest of Iran and continued by Stevense et all,2001 and 2006, 2012, and Djamali and et al, 2009,2012,2015  and Joens et al,2015. Safaei Rad, 2014 in Persian and Davoodi and et al, 2015 in Persian and Azizi et al, 2012 in Persian and Akbari et al,2016 in Persian. 
Arzhan wetland located on ′ 56 °51 تا ′ 59 °51 in sout west of zagros Fars province Iran. The climate parameter of this region show in table (1)





The number of frost days


Minimum absolute temperature


The maximum absolute temperature


The average temperature of the coldest month


Average temperature of the warmest month


 Annual average température




124 days


15˚C


38˚C


2.1˚C


21.1˚


11





 
Table (1) Modern climatic factors
 
 
Materials and methods
In order to understand past climate and environment change and reconstruct at Arzhan wetland SW of Zagros Iran 960 Cm core were taken and a pollen diagram was derived through late Pleistocene and Holocene. We performed magnetic sensibility analysis in primary step and the second we initially to subsampled based on magnetic sensibility measure and in thirst we have prepare our samples according to Moor et al, 1995 methods. In this step we added Lycopodium to our samples in order to counting and frequency of pollen grain in samples than we counted pollen and derived pollen diagram during late Pleistocene and Holocene of Southwest of Iran( Figure 1)
In other hands for dating, we extracted four samples of piece of plant for obtained date and after preparing sent to Radio Carbon laboratory Poznan Poland.(Figure 2)
 
Results and discussion
Radio carbon dating represent 15000Cal. BP that covered late Pleistocene and Holocene at the region. The pollen diagram shows at late Pleistocene covered by cold and dry steppe with Cousinia and Artemisia whit dry summer. Represent of cousinia refer to cold and dry in the upland of Zagros mountain (El Moslemany, 1986 and 1987) also Djamali believe  that cousinia pollen describe a dry conditions( Djamali et all, 2012) arboreal pollen   represent during Holocene around 10000Cal B.P. and start to spread  in this region. Quercous woodland and Pistasio- Amygdalus shrubs have spread from around 6000 years ago during middle Holocene. A maximum of spread of Oka woodland represent in 4000 and 3000 Cal.B.P so we referred them to increase of moisture of summer rainfall.  Appearance of Guglans in 3000 years ago is important and refer to human activity in this region
Conclusion
The pollen records started at around 15100 Cal. BP and show an absence of arboreal plant in area during late Pleistocene up to 11000 Cal. BP. Pollen records in this zone present a cold steppe that indicated by Cousinia, Artemisia Centaura and Chenopodiaceae pollen with decrease of Poaceae. Younger Dryas in this part of Zagros have not presented by spatially pollen grain. It seems due to upland and local characteristic the basin has not experienced Younger Drays as other region of Zagros. From 10000 Cal. BP arboreal plant have begun to spread as Quercous woodland and Pistacio- Amygdalus scrub that dominated the area during last Holocene.  At 8300Cal.BP Quercous woodland and Pistacia- Amygdalus scrub degraded during 600 years up to 7700 Cal BP after this phase Quercous woodland start to spread until 6300 Cal. BP. Middle Holocen at 6300 years ago Quercous woodland have degraded and start to spread. At 5000 Cal.BP. Through Holocen at this period Quercous woodland, have maximum extended. Gaglans has appearance at 3000 years ago and continued to present. Based on pollen diagram we reconstructed climate of past in this region. It seems the atmospheric circulation and climate regime have been stable and closed to modern climate in general. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Paleo environment
  • Pleistocene
  • Holocene
  • Pollen
  • Dasht E Arzhan

 

 

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