ارزیابی اثر عوامل اقلیمی بر گسترش رویشگاه‌های گونه داروئی Nepeta cataria L. در شمال‌غرب ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 موسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویح کشاورزی، اصفهان، ایران

2 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویح کشاورزی، اصفهان، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه جغرافیا دانشگاه پیام نور،

چکیده

هدف اصلی این پژوهش، درک ارتباط بین متغیرهای اقلیمی و پراکنش گونه داروئی Nepeta catariaدر شمال‌غرب کشور بود تا از بین آن‌ها عوامل اقلیمی مهم تأثیرگذار بر گسترش رویشگاه‌های این گونه در منطقه مشخص شود. به این منظور، با در نظر گرفتن فاکتورهای پراکنش طبیعی گونه در این منطقه، با استناد به آمارهای هواشناسی 29 ایستگاه سینوپتیک واقع در سه استان اردبیل، آذربایجان شرقی و غربی و استان‌های مجاور، 46 متغیر اقلیمی که از نظر شرایط اکولوژیک این گونه از اهمیت بیشتری برخوردار بودند، انتخاب شدند و با روش تحلیل عاملی، عوامل موثر در پراکنش این گونه بررسی گردید. یافته‌ها نشان داد اقلیم منطقه شمال‌غرب کشور حاصل تعامل پنج عامل دمای گرمایشی، الگوی زمانی بارش، دمای فصل سرد، باد و بارش می‌باشد که به ترتیب با 9/30 ، 2/19، 2/19، 4/11 و 8/7 درصد و در کل، 5/88 درصد پراش متغیرهای اولیه اقلیم رویشی منطقه را بیان می‌کنند. با انطباق نقشه پراکنش گونه با نقشه‌های اقلیمی تهیه شده، تاثیر عامل دمای گرمایشی با میانگین 83/0- در پراکنش گونه با بالاترین میزان و با تاثیر منفی مشخص شد. میانگین ارتفاع از سطح دریا در مناطق دارای این گونه داروئی بالای 2000 متر و میزان بارش سالانه در این مناطق در حدود 381 میلی‌متر می‌باشد. میانگین متغیر تعداد روزهای همراه با بارش سالانه در مناطق دارای گونه، 96 روز می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation the Effect of Climatic Factors on the Development of Medicinal Species Nepeta cataria Habitats in Northwestern of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Vadood Samadi 1
  • Morteza Khodagholi 2
  • akbar shaemi 3
1 Institute of Forestry and Rangelands of the Country, AREEO, Isfahan, I.R.Iran
2 Isfahan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Isfahan, I.R.Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Introduction: Medicinal plant is defined as a plant with at least a part having medicinal and healing properties for living organisms. Iran has a rich collection of medicinal plants and is known as one of the best places in the world in terms of climatic, geographical and growth condition for such valuable plants. Population growth and emergence of pharmaceuticals companies that produce medicines from herbs has led to an increasing rate of harvesting of these plants on their natural habitats, intensifying the pressure, habitat destruction and the extinction of some plant species of the country. An alternative option to prevent this problem is to plant and crop wild species. The present research aims to update information and develop insights on climatic characteristics of habitats of species Nepeta cataria in the northwest of Iran. This species is the most famous species of Nepeta in the world which widely grown in large parts of Europe and Asia such as Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India but in the US it is widely cultivated. Nepeta cataria has been used as a medicinal plant to urination, pulmonary vasodilatation and blocked uterus opening and disposal of body worms. Essential oil is main constituents extracted from its flowering branches and inflorescence.
 
Materials and Methods
Study area: Natural habitats in northwest of Iran in three provinces of West Azarbaijan, East Azarbaijan and Ardebil with an area exceeding 100000km2 (about 6% of the country), were considered as study area. The spatial distribution of the species and ecological variety in the northwestern of the country, is one of the reasons for choosing this study population.
 
Data: Preliminary data, used in this study, were included meteorological data at 29 synoptic stations in three provinces of Ardabil, East Azerbaijan and West and neighboring provinces (including in southern Kurdistan, Zanjan and Gilan provinces in the South East in study area) in point-data format with the period from the beginning of the recorded date to the end of 2005, were measured and recorded. Annual and monthly climatic variables included 30 variables in temperature, 6 in humidity, 12 in precipitation, 6 in wind and 6 variables in sunshine group.
 
Methodology: In this study, a kriging interpolation method was used to generalize the data and mapping the spatial distribution. As a result, grids with dimensions of 10 × 10 km within the study area was established and finally matrix with 75 columns and 1055 rows (the intersection of grid lines) for the entire study area was prepared. Factor analysis was used for reduction of data matrix dimensions. Before using factor analysis, KMO (Kaiser-Mayer-Olkin) index and Bartlett's test of sphericity, were tested. Principal Components Analysis with correlation matrix type and up to 25 rotations was performed to extract the maximum operating frequency for convergence model. A Varimax method was used to improve relationship between variables and initial factors and apply special transformations on the factors, one of the most common methods is orthogonal to maintain independence between extracted factors. In this study, regression analysis was used to calculate the factor scores where, regardless of rotations, the number of related factors are estimated. The factor loadings with values greater than 0.6 were considered.
 
Results: The climate type of northwest of Iran is resulted from the interaction of five different factors. They cover 88.5 % of total variance including thermal temperature (30.9), temporal rainfall pattern (19.2%), temperature of the cold season (19.2%), wind (11.4%), and rainfall (7.8%). The results of cluster analysis demonstrated that six climatic zones were detected in the study area as follows: temperate high rainfall, temperate semi-arid, cold semi-arid, temperate and windy semi-arid, and humid temperate. According to the results obtained from the adaptation of species distribution and obtained climate maps, thermal temperature, with an average value of -0.83, was identified as the most negative influential factor affecting the species distribution. The average height in the areas of medical plants is about 2000 meters from sea level with annual precipitation of 381 mm. The number of rainy day is 96 days per year in this area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • catnip (nepta cataria)
  • climatic
  • factors
  • Habitat
  • Northwestern Iran
  1.  

    1. Azimi, F., A. Shakiba. And N. Saeidi. 2009. The zoning of agricultural climates in south and southwest of Iran using cluster analysis method, Natural Geography, No. 4, pp. 47-58.
    2. Azizi, Q. and A. Shaemi. 2004. Evaluation of diversity and talents of agriculture in Iran by papadakis, Geographical research. No. 3. Pp. 21-32.
    3. Baaghide, M., A. Entezari, E. Babai, M. Abassnia, 2013, Identifying Optimal Climate Areas for the Recovery of Oak forests (Case Study: Kermanshah Province), No. 6, pp. 121-142.
    4. Baher, 2010. Study of habitat characteristics and distribution of different species of Thymus species in Iran. Publications of the Institute of Forestry and Rangelands of Iran, Tehran.
    5. Bayat, M., Arzani, H., Jalili A. and Nateghi, S., 2016. The effects of climatic parameters on vegetation cover and forage production of four grass species in semi-steppe Rangelands in Mazandaran province, Iran. Journal of Rangeland Science, 6(4): 368-376
    6. Douglas, Jr, C. L, R. W. Rickman, B. L. Klepper, J. F. Zuzel, and D. J. Wysocki, 1992. Agroclimatic zones for dry land winter wheat producing areas of Idaho, Washington and Oregon. Northwest Science, 66(1): 26- 34.
    7. Damroes, M., Kaviani, M., and D. Schefer, 1998, An analysis of regional and intraannual precipitation variability over Iran using multivariate statistical methods, Theor. Appl. Climatol., No. 61, pp. 151-159
    8. DeGaetano. A. T. M. D. Schulman. 1990. A climatic classification of plant hardiness in the United States and Canada. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. No. 3- 4, pp. 333- 351.
    9. Farajzadeh, M., A. Fathnia, B. Alijani and Ziyaeian, P. 2011. Evaluation of the effect of climatic factors on vegetation growth in dense rangelands of Iran using AVHRR images. Natural Geography Research, No.75, pp. 1-15.
    10. Ganjali, A.R. and Khak sefidi, A. 2015. Identification of some species of medicinal plants in Zabol (Sistan and Baluchestan province) and its application in traditional medicine. Journal of Traditional Medicine of Islam and Iran. No. 1. pp.89-96.
    11. Godfrey, B. 2000. Agroclimate zones for Idaho. http: insideidaho.org/data/ICS/archive/agroclim- id- ics. Gz
    12. Hossel. J. E. A. E. Riding، T. P. Dawson and P. A. Harrison. 1999. Bioclimatic classification for Britain and Irland.
    13. Jam zad, 2012, Flora of Iran, Mentha, Publications of the Institute of Forestry and Rangelands of Iran, Tehran.
    14. Khodagholi, M., A. Mokhtari, M. Montazeri, 2015, Evaluation of climatic adaptation of oak seedlings Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province. Iranian Journal of Forest. No. 4, pp. 446-433.
    15. Khodagholi, M., K. Shirani., M. Yazdani and A. keyvandarian. 2007. The zonation of vegetation elements in Karun watershed using multivariate statistical methods and geographical information systems, Agricultural Science Journal, No. 4-B. pp. 139-152.
    16. Khodagholi, M., A. Masoodian. And M. Kaviyani, 2006. Investigation of plant - Cognitive climate of Zayandeh Rood Basin. Pajoohesh and sazandegi Journal. No. 70, pp. 41-53.
    17. Mohammadi, H., 2011. Applied Meteorology, Tehran University Press, Tehran.
    18. Musau, j., Patil, S., Sheffield, J. and Marshall, M. 2016. Spatio-temporal vegetation dynamics and relationship with climate over east Africa. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. doi:10.5194/hess-2016-502
    19. Najafpoor Navaei, M. 2013. Report of the research project on the cultivation and domestication of the two species of Nepeta crassifolia, Nepeta denudata in order to protect and restore them. Publications of the Institute of Forestry and Rangelands of Iran, Tehran.
    20. Nejati, R., H. Ashrafi, 2010. Applicable statistics in plain language, Shahid Rajaee Tarbiat University Press.
    21. Omidbeygi, R. 2000, Production and processing of medicinal plants. Astan Quds Razavi Press. Vol 4. 424pp.
    22. Pakzad, Z., M. Raeini, M. Khodagholi, 2013, Effect of climatic factors on the development of habitats of Astragalus adscendens in Isfahan province. Iranian Journal of Research in grassland and desert. No.1, pp. 212-199.
    23. Palmate. S.S. Pandey, A., Kumar, D., Pandey, R.P. and Mishra, S.K. 2017. Climate change impact on forest cover and vegetation in Betwa basin, India, Appl Water Sci, No. 7, pp.103-114.
    24. Saboohi, R and Barani, H. 2016. Climatic Characteristics of the Natural Habitats of Astragalus gossypinus Fisher in Isfahan Province. Iran. J. Appl. Ecol. No. 16, pp. 13-29.
    25. Saboohi, R., M. Khodagholi, 2013, Bioclimatic evaluation of species Bromus tomentellus   in Isfahan province. Journal of Applied Ecology. No. 4, pp. 71-57.
    26. Salehi Sormaghi, M. 2008. Medicinal Plants and Treatment plant. Vol. 2. The World of Nutrition, Tehran.
    27. Shaemi, A. and H. Ahmadi, 2011. Investigation of agro-climatic diversity of Ilam province using papadacys method indices, Journal of Climatology Research, No. 7-8, pp. 13-20.
    28. Shirani, F. A. Mazidi and M. Khodagholi, 2009. Climatic zoning of Yazd province with multivariate statistical methods, Geography and Regional Development, No. 13, pp. 139-158.
    29. Soltani, S., L. Yaghmaei, M. Khodagholi and R. Saboohi, 2010. Zonation of bioclimatology of Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province using multivariate statistical methods, Journal of Water and Soil Science (Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources), No. 14, pp. 53-68.
    30. Stiner, D. 1965. A multivariate Statistical approach to climatic classification. 82:329-347.
    31. Tagesson, T., Fensholt, R., Guiro, I., Rasmussen, M. O., Huber, S., Mbow, C., Garcia, M., Horion, S., Sandholt, I., HolmRasmussen, B., Gottsche, F. M., Ridler, M. E., Olen, N., Lundegard Olsen, J., Ehammer, A., Madsen, M., Olesen, F. S. and
      Ardo, J.: Ecosystem properties of semiarid savanna grassland in West Africa and its relationship with environmental variability, Glob. Chang. Biol., No. 1, pp. 250–264, doi:10.1111/gcb.12734, 2015.
    32. Yaghmaei, L., M. Khodagholi, S. Soltani and R, Saboohi, 2009. The Effect of Different Climatic factors on the Development of Forest Types in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari Province Using Multivariate Statistical Methods, Forest Journal of Iran, No. 3, pp. 239-251.
    33. Yaghmaei, L., S. Soltani. And M. Khodagholi. 2008. The effect of climatic factors on the spread of Artemisia sieberi and Artemisia aucheri in Isfahan province using multivariate statistical methods, Journal of Water and Soil Science (Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources), No.12, pp.359-371.
    34. Yunus, F. 2011. Delineation of Climate Divisions for Peninsular Malaysia, Geospatial World Forum, Dimensions and Directions of Geospatial Industry, Hyderabad, India. 16pp.
    35.  Zhao, C.-Y., J. Wang, X.-Y, Yan, Y. Wang, Y. Luo, 2009, Climatic characteristics and regionalization of winter snowfall in Northeast ChinaJournal of Natural Disasters 18: 29-35.