ارزیابی تاثیر فرم پنجره در کیفیت نور فضاهای آموزشی در اقلیم BWk

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه معماری، واحد سمنان، دانشگاه آزاداسلامی، سمنان

2 گروه معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 گروه معماری، واحد سمنان، دانشگاه آزاداسلامی، سمنان، ایران

چکیده

فرم پنجره عاملی تعیین کننده در انتقال نورروزبهفضاهایداخلی کلاس های آموزشی است. مطالعات گذشته نشان می دهد که نور روزبر سلامت جسمی و آرامش روانی دانش آموزان تاثیرگذار است و بهترینفرمپنجره، مستطیلافقی است و در جبهه جنوبی جهت جلوگیری از خیرگی و فراهم آوردن شرایط آسایش به استفاده از سایبان تاکید شده است. در استانداردهای طراحی تاکید شده که استفاده از نور روز ضروری است و افزایش میزان درخشندگی سطح میز مطالعه می تواند باعث پدیده خیرگی شود. هدف اصلی پژوهش تبیین چارچوب اجرایی معماری سرآمد و معماری نوردوست با ارزیابی تاثیر فرم پنجره در کیفیت جذب نور فضاهای آموزشی در اقلیم BWk .بر اساس روش شناسی پژوهش، «ابعاد» و «فرم پنجره» متغییر مستقل، شاخص های «روشنایی» و «خیرگی» متغییر وابسته و ارتفاع کف «پنجره از کف زمین» و «مصالح» متغییر کنترل می باشد. پژوهش حاضر، کاربردی و روش تحقیق توصیفی تحلیلی می باشد. برای نمونه آزمون، یک کلاس درس با پنجره هایی رو به جنوب در شهر سمنان با پلاگین های هانی بی، هانی بی پلاس و لیدی باگ مورد مطالعه قرار می گیرند. در مرحله بعد دانشجویان و اساتید با استفاده از پرسشنامه، نظر خود را درباره کیفیت نور روز بیان  می کنند. یافته های به دست آمده از مقایسه آنالیزهای نرم افزاری، نشان می دهد که در برخی مدل ها در ساعت 11صبح، میز مطالعه در بازه طیف آزار دهنده قرار می گیرند. نتایج پژوهش نشان می دهد که پنجره هایی با ارتفاع 180سانتی متر در فرم های مختلف از نظر خیرگی، شرایط نا محسوس را دارد و نشان می دهد تغییر در چیدمان صندلی و تابلو می تواند مانند فرم پنجره ها موثر باشد. نتایج همچنین تاکید دارند که الگوی پشنهادی توسط سازمان توسعه و تجهیز مدارس ایران، از نظر بصری در اقلیم BWk کارآیی کافی ندارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Impacts of Window Form on Natural Light in Classroom in BWk Climate

نویسندگان [English]

  • neda marufi 1
  • Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad 2
  • Hossein Moradinasab 3
2 Department of Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Architecture, Semnan branch, Islamic Azad university, Semnan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The “window form” is a determining factor in the transmission of “daylight” into the interior of educational classrooms. Studies show that the use of daylight affects students' physical health and mental well-being. Therefore, in the design standards of educational spaces, the necessity of using daylight has been emphasized. On the other hand, increasing the brightness of the student's desk can cause glare. It is necessary for classroom to gain natural light and visual communication with outside as a matter of “visual comfort”. Literature review and recent major advances show that the most efficient window form in Khorramabad of classroom is “horizontal”. The current debates show that southern classroom needs a canopy to provide adequate daylight and to eliminate glare and reduce eyestrain. The significant gaps in the field might be the form of the window and the effect of daylight in the education classroom.
The research hypothesis emphasize that horizontal-rectangular windows in classrooms do not satisfy “sense of beauty” of the students. It seems that the amount of light that enters the classroom through the horizontal-rectangular windows is suitable for the classroom. It is predicted that during the teaching hours, due to the high amount of light radiation and sometimes due to the lack of sufficient light in the classroom, students feel bored and drowsy.

Materials and methods
The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of window form on the quality of light absorption of educational spaces in BWk climate. A sample classroom in Semnan is selected as the case study of the research to examine the impacts of the window form. The research question is: What is the relationship between the window form (including shape and dimension) and the quality of natural daylight (the brightness of the daylight factor)?
According to the research methodology, the independent variables are "dimensions" and "window form"; and “brightness” and “pleasant atmosphere inside the classroom” are dependent variables of the research which might be estimated based on 1- the daylight glare probability (DGP), 2- The Annual Sun Exposure (ASE), 3- the spatial daylight autonomy (sDA), 4- The daylight factor (DF) and 5- The Useful Daylight Illuminance (UDI). The research is to consider window materials, floor height, window OKB from floor, interior wall type and window glass type as controlled variables.
The research enjoys qualitative-quantitative approach. The simulated environment in this study is a classroom with windows facing south in the city of Semnan. The dimensions of the examined classroom, in terms of length, width and height, have been selected according to the criteria of the Organization for Development, Renovation and Equipping of Schools (DRES). In the next step, students and professors use a questionnaire to express their opinion about the quality of daylight. For analytical simulation, a three-dimensional model of a “sample classroom” is simulated in commercially available software. Analyzes of daylight and well-being have been simulated in the Ladybug and Honeybee-Plus Tools, and the questionnaires have been analyzed by the means of SPSS Statistics.

Results and discussion
It was DGP that shows challenging behavior in the case study of the research in spring, autumn, winter at 11 AM in the 15th day of each month. ASE examined in order to calculate how much of space gets direct sunlight more than standard levels which might be the case of glare (visual discomfort) or more energy consumption for cooling loads. ASE as a dynamic indicator shows risk of glare which is dependent on the window of the classroom dimensions directly. According to the dynamic indicator of sDA, the research is going to answer “is there enough daylight in the classroom and examines whether the classroom receives enough daylight during standard operating hours or not”? The results indicate that the model umber 4, is in the best condition and about 50% of the hypothetical points in the class absorb at least 300 Lux of sufficient natural light to provide light for other spaces. Those that absorb relatively less light require artificial light. DF analysis, which is a static indicator, according to the form of common windows in the country, the light absorption conditions in the cloudy sky are such that it has the desired light absorption in the middle part of the classroom and in the third part of the class. It has been concluded that the provision of lighting by artificial sources such as ceiling lamps, etc. is an integral element of the class, but it is recommended to provide energy for optimal use of artificial light. UDI is to be between 100 and 2000 Lux. The case study simulation shows that in the first, second and fourth samples of the space under the window, less than 10% of the daylight hours will receive useful daylight lighting.
According to the results of the questionnaire provided to the students, 80% have felt drowsy because of the poor lighting conditions in the classroom. 66% of the pupils consider their priority to choose the light source and lighting to achieve a sense of comfort, the natural light entering the classroom through the windows along with the light supply through the lamp < br />
Conclusion
The results concluded that the efficient height of the classroom window is 180 cm. Other dimensions might be result in glare and visual discomfort in BWk climate. Based on visual discomfort of direct sunlight, window overhangs might be great solution for the case as well as passive shading. The simulations endorse adoption of an awning or an overhang above the window of the classroom. The results emphasizes that the standard classroom which has been promoted by the Organization for Development, Renovation and Equipping of Schools (DRES) is not good enough to be used in BWk climate schools.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Classroom
  • BWk climate
  • window form
  • natural light
  • glare
  1.  

    1. Abdelhakim, M., Lim, Y. W., & Kandar, M. Z. (2019). Optimum Glazing Configurations for Visual Performance in Algerian Classrooms under Mediterranean Climate. Journal of Daylighting, 6(1), 11-22.
    2. Bakmohammadi, P., & Noorzai, E. (2020). Optimization of the design of the primary school classrooms in terms of energy and daylight performance considering occupants’ thermal and visual comfort. Energy Reports, 6, 1590-1607.
    3. Eskandari, H., Saedvandi, M., Mahdavinejad, M. (2018). The impact of Iwan as a traditional shading device on the building energy consumption. Buildings. 8(1): 3.
    4. Fadae Ardestani, M., Naseri, H., Ayatalahi, M., Zomorodian, Z. (2019). The Assessment of Daylight and Glare in Classrooms Using Dynamic Indicators; the Case of SBU Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Soffeh, 28(83): 25-40.
    5. Faizi, F., Noorani, M., Ghaedi, A., & Mahdavinejad, M. (2011). Design an optimum pattern of orientation in residential complexes by analyzing the level of energy consumption (case study: Maskan Mehr Complexes, Tehran, Iran). Procedia engineering, 21, 1179-87.
    6. Fallahtafti, R., & Mahdavinejad, M. (2015). Optimisation of building shape and orientation for better energy efficient architecture. International Journal of Energy Sector Management. 9(4): 593-618.
    7. Freewan, A. A., & Al Dalala, J. A. (2020). Assessment of daylight performance of Advanced Daylighting Strategies in Large University Classrooms; Case Study Classrooms at JUST. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 59(2), 791-802.
    8. Ghamari, H. (2019). Vernacular Iranian Architecture, Symbiotic of Meaning, Structure and Aesthetics towards Energy Efficient Design. Journal of Energy and Power Engineering, 13, 283-291.
    9. Ghasempourabadi, M., Mahmoudabadi Arani, V. R., Bahar, O., & Mahdavinejad, M. (2012). Assessment of behavior of two-shelled domes in Iranian traditional architecture: the Charbaq School, Isfahan, Iran. Transactions on ecology and the environment, 155, 1223-1233.

    10. Heschong, L., 2002. Daylighting and human performance. ASHRAE journal, 44(6), pp.65-67.

    11. Lin, P., Tian, Z., & Jonsson, J. C. (2020). Analysis of the performance of prism daylight redirecting systems with bi-directional scattering distribution functions. Building Simulation (pp. 1-12). Tsinghua University Press.

    1. Mahdavinejad, M., & Nazar, N. S. (2017). Daylightophil high-performance architecture: Multi-objective optimization of energy efficiency and daylight availability in BSk climate. Energy Procedia, 115, 92-101.

    13. Mahdavinejad, M., Bitaab, N. (2017). From Smart-Eco Building to High-Performance Architecture: Optimization of Energy Consumption in Architecture of Developing Countries. E&ES. 83(1): 012020.

    1. Mahdavinejad, M., Garaati, M., & Kermani, A. Y. (2014). Daylight parameters and operation quality; Case studies: Public office buildings in Kerman, Iran. Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy, 4(9), 29-34.

    15. Mahdavinejad, M., Hosseini, SA. (2019). Data mining and content analysis of the jury citations of the Pritzker Architecture prize (1977–2017). Journal of Architecture and Urbanism. 43(1):71.

    16. Mahdavinejad, M., Matoor, S., Fayaz, R., & Bemanian, M. (2012). Estimation of daylight availability and illuminance on vertical south facing surfaces in Tehran. Advanced Materials Research.  518: 1525-1529.

    17. Mahdavinejad, M., Zia, A., Larki, A. N., Ghanavati, S., & Elmi, N. (2014). Dilemma of green and pseudo green architecture based on LEED norms in case of developing countries. International journal of sustainable built environment, 3(2), 235-246.

    18. Mahdavinejad, M. (2020). Designerly approach to energy efficiency in high-performance architecture theory. Naqshejahan-Basic studies and New Technologies of Architecture and Planning, 10(2), 75-83.

    19. Goharian, A., & Mahdavinejad, M. (2020). A Novel Approach to Multi-Apertures and Multi-Aspects Ratio Light Pipe. Journal of Daylighting, 7(2), 186-200.

    20. Mohtashami, N., Mahdavinejad, M., Bemanian, M. (2016). Contribution of city prosperity to decisions on healthy building design: A case study of Tehran. Frontiers of Architectural Research. 5(3): 319-31.

    21. Motazedian, F., Mahdavinejad, M., Habib, F., & Diba, D. (2016). Classroom Lighting Control Systems and Level of Energy Consumption, Tehran, Iran. International Journal of Architecture and Urban Development, 6(2), 35-42.

    22. Nikoudel, F., Mahdavinejad, M., & Vazifehdan, J. (2018). Nocturnal Architecture of Buildings: Interaction of Exterior Lighting and Visual Beauty.  Light & Engineering. (2018) 26(1) 81-90.

    23. Pilechiha, P., Mahdavinejad, M., Rahimian, F. P., Carnemolla, P., & Seyedzadeh, S. (2020). Multi-objective optimisation framework for designing office windows: quality of view, daylight and energy efficiency. Applied Energy, 261, 114356.

    1. Piparsania, K. R., Vaidya, P., & Kalita, P. C. (2020). Evaluation of daylight performance of classroom spaces in Ahmedabad. DS 101: Proceedings of NordDesign 2020, Lyngby, Denmark, 12th-14th August 2020, 1-12.

    25. Yazhari Kermani, A., Nasrollahi, F., & Mahdavinejad, M. (2018). Investigation of the relationship between depth of overhang and amount of daylight indicators in office buildings of Kerman city. Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal, 5(3), 129-136.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     


     

     

    1. Abdelhakim, M., Lim, Y. W., & Kandar, M. Z. (2019). Optimum Glazing Configurations for Visual Performance in Algerian Classrooms under Mediterranean Climate. Journal of Daylighting, 6(1), 11-22.
    2. Bakmohammadi, P., & Noorzai, E. (2020). Optimization of the design of the primary school classrooms in terms of energy and daylight performance considering occupants’ thermal and visual comfort. Energy Reports, 6, 1590-1607.
    3. Eskandari, H., Saedvandi, M., Mahdavinejad, M. (2018). The impact of Iwan as a traditional shading device on the building energy consumption. Buildings. 8(1): 3.
    4. Fadae Ardestani, M., Naseri, H., Ayatalahi, M., Zomorodian, Z. (2019). The Assessment of Daylight and Glare in Classrooms Using Dynamic Indicators; the Case of SBU Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Soffeh, 28(83): 25-40.
    5. Faizi, F., Noorani, M., Ghaedi, A., & Mahdavinejad, M. (2011). Design an optimum pattern of orientation in residential complexes by analyzing the level of energy consumption (case study: Maskan Mehr Complexes, Tehran, Iran). Procedia engineering, 21, 1179-87.
    6. Fallahtafti, R., & Mahdavinejad, M. (2015). Optimisation of building shape and orientation for better energy efficient architecture. International Journal of Energy Sector Management. 9(4): 593-618.
    7. Freewan, A. A., & Al Dalala, J. A. (2020). Assessment of daylight performance of Advanced Daylighting Strategies in Large University Classrooms; Case Study Classrooms at JUST. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 59(2), 791-802.
    8. Ghamari, H. (2019). Vernacular Iranian Architecture, Symbiotic of Meaning, Structure and Aesthetics towards Energy Efficient Design. Journal of Energy and Power Engineering, 13, 283-291.
    9. Ghasempourabadi, M., Mahmoudabadi Arani, V. R., Bahar, O., & Mahdavinejad, M. (2012). Assessment of behavior of two-shelled domes in Iranian traditional architecture: the Charbaq School, Isfahan, Iran. Transactions on ecology and the environment, 155, 1223-1233.

    10. Heschong, L., 2002. Daylighting and human performance. ASHRAE journal, 44(6), pp.65-67.

    11. Lin, P., Tian, Z., & Jonsson, J. C. (2020). Analysis of the performance of prism daylight redirecting systems with bi-directional scattering distribution functions. Building Simulation (pp. 1-12). Tsinghua University Press.

    1. Mahdavinejad, M., & Nazar, N. S. (2017). Daylightophil high-performance architecture: Multi-objective optimization of energy efficiency and daylight availability in BSk climate. Energy Procedia, 115, 92-101.

    13. Mahdavinejad, M., Bitaab, N. (2017). From Smart-Eco Building to High-Performance Architecture: Optimization of Energy Consumption in Architecture of Developing Countries. E&ES. 83(1): 012020.

    1. Mahdavinejad, M., Garaati, M., & Kermani, A. Y. (2014). Daylight parameters and operation quality; Case studies: Public office buildings in Kerman, Iran. Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy, 4(9), 29-34.

    15. Mahdavinejad, M., Hosseini, SA. (2019). Data mining and content analysis of the jury citations of the Pritzker Architecture prize (1977–2017). Journal of Architecture and Urbanism. 43(1):71.

    16. Mahdavinejad, M., Matoor, S., Fayaz, R., & Bemanian, M. (2012). Estimation of daylight availability and illuminance on vertical south facing surfaces in Tehran. Advanced Materials Research.  518: 1525-1529.

    17. Mahdavinejad, M., Zia, A., Larki, A. N., Ghanavati, S., & Elmi, N. (2014). Dilemma of green and pseudo green architecture based on LEED norms in case of developing countries. International journal of sustainable built environment, 3(2), 235-246.

    18. Mahdavinejad, M. (2020). Designerly approach to energy efficiency in high-performance architecture theory. Naqshejahan-Basic studies and New Technologies of Architecture and Planning, 10(2), 75-83.

    19. Goharian, A., & Mahdavinejad, M. (2020). A Novel Approach to Multi-Apertures and Multi-Aspects Ratio Light Pipe. Journal of Daylighting, 7(2), 186-200.

    20. Mohtashami, N., Mahdavinejad, M., Bemanian, M. (2016). Contribution of city prosperity to decisions on healthy building design: A case study of Tehran. Frontiers of Architectural Research. 5(3): 319-31.

    21. Motazedian, F., Mahdavinejad, M., Habib, F., & Diba, D. (2016). Classroom Lighting Control Systems and Level of Energy Consumption, Tehran, Iran. International Journal of Architecture and Urban Development, 6(2), 35-42.

    22. Nikoudel, F., Mahdavinejad, M., & Vazifehdan, J. (2018). Nocturnal Architecture of Buildings: Interaction of Exterior Lighting and Visual Beauty.  Light & Engineering. (2018) 26(1) 81-90.

    23. Pilechiha, P., Mahdavinejad, M., Rahimian, F. P., Carnemolla, P., & Seyedzadeh, S. (2020). Multi-objective optimisation framework for designing office windows: quality of view, daylight and energy efficiency. Applied Energy, 261, 114356.

    1. Piparsania, K. R., Vaidya, P., & Kalita, P. C. (2020). Evaluation of daylight performance of classroom spaces in Ahmedabad. DS 101: Proceedings of NordDesign 2020, Lyngby, Denmark, 12th-14th August 2020, 1-12.

    25. Yazhari Kermani, A., Nasrollahi, F., & Mahdavinejad, M. (2018). Investigation of the relationship between depth of overhang and amount of daylight indicators in office buildings of Kerman city. Environmental Health Engineering and Management Journal, 5(3), 129-136.